注册 登录  
 加关注
   显示下一条  |  关闭
温馨提示!由于新浪微博认证机制调整,您的新浪微博帐号绑定已过期,请重新绑定!立即重新绑定新浪微博》  |  关闭

欢迎光临shaying110的博客

RSed-ISPing

 
 
 

日志

 
 

路由器IOS升级方法总结  

2009-06-19 14:00:00|  分类: CISCO网络 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |
现总结归纳出CISCO路由器IOS映像升级的几种方法,供广大网络爱好者或同仁参考。在介绍CISCO路由器IOS升级方法前,有必要对Cisco路由器的存储器的相关知识作以简单介绍。路由器与计算机相似,它也有内存和操作系统。在Cisco路由器中,其操作系统叫做互连网操作系统(Internetwork Operating System),常简称为IOS。路由器的存储器主要有:

ROM:只读存储器包含路由器正在使用的IOS的一份副本;

RAM:IOS将随机访问存储器分成共享和主存。主要用来存储运行中的路由器配置和与路由协议有关的IOS数据结构;

FLASH (闪存):用来存储IOS软件映像文件,闪存是可以擦除内存,它能够用IOS的新版本覆写,IOS升级主要是闪存中的IOS映像文件进行更换。

NVRAM:非易失性随机访问存储器,用来存储系统的配置文件。
IOS升级方法一
在对能够正常启动的CISCO路由器的IOS进行升级时,比较简单。具体步骤如下:
1、寻找一种TFTP服务器软件(有CISCO公司的TFTPServer或3COM公司的3Cserver等,在升级较大IOS映象文件时,建议用3Cserver),安装在一台计算机上,将要升级的IOS映象文件拷贝到相关的目录中(例:D:\),并运行TFTP服务器软件,通过菜单设置Root目录为拷贝IOS映象文件所在目录(如D:\)。假设该计算机的IP地址为10.32.10.1;
2、连接路由器的console口与PC机的COM1,使用PC的超级终端软件访问路由器,将路由器的地址设为10.32.10.32(与计算机的IP地址同网段即可)。建议在进行IOS升级前将原有IOS文件备份下来,防止待升级的IOS文件存在问题不可用;
QUOTE:
Router# dir flash:     (查看目前IOS映象文件名,也可用Router#Show version)
Directory of flash:/
1  -rw-     5998292                C2600-I-MZ.122-11.BIN
8388608 bytes total (2390252 bytes free)
Router#copy flash tftp            (备份IOS文件)
Source filename []?c2600-i-mz.122-11.bin
Address or name of remote host []? 10.32.10.1    (TFTP服务器地址)
Destination filename [c2600-i-mz.122-11.bin]?
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
…!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
5998292 bytes copied in 324.071 secs (18509 bytes/sec)
Router#

3、对路由器进行IOS升级;
QUOTE:
Router#copy tftp flash
Address or name of remote host []? 10.32.10.1       (TFTP服务器地址)
Source filename []? c2600-i-mz.122-11.bin         (需升级的新IOS映象文件名)
Destination filename [c2600-i-mz.122-11.bin]?
Do you want to over write? [confirm]
Accessing tftp://10.32.10.1/c2600-i-mz.122-11.bin...
Erase flash: before copying? [confirm]
Erasing the flash filesystem will remove all files! Continue? [confirm]
Erasing device... eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ...erasedee
Erase of flash: complete
Loading c2600-i-mz.122-11.bin from 10.32.10.1 (via Ethernet0/0): !!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
[OK - 5998292 bytes]
Verifying checksum...  OK (0xA0C0)
5998292 bytes copied in 318.282 secs (18846 bytes/sec)
Router#
 
IOS升级方法二
由于升级失败后或者路由器的config-register寄存器值为0x2101时,开启路由器时、或者在开启(某些型号)Cisco路由器的电源开关后30秒内按下Ctrl+break键,中断路由器的正常启动,路由器都会进入rom监视模式,即Router(boot)>,在这种情形下,对路由器的IOS进行升级,也比较简单。首先进入特权模式下,即
QUOTE:
Router(boot)>en
Router(boot)# 
其他升级步骤同方法一,即:执行copy tftp flash命令,对IOS进行升级。升级完成后,不要忘了修改config-register寄存器值为0x2102(恢复正常值)。
QUOTE:
Router(boot)# t
Router(boot)( config)# config-register 0x2102
Router(boot)( config)#exit
Router(boot)#wr
Router(boot)#reload   
重启即可。
 
IOS升级方法三

由于不小心使用了命令erase flash或升级失败后或在开启(某些型号)Cisco路由器的电源开关后30秒内按下Ctrl+break键,中断路由器的正常启动,路由器都会进入rom监视模式,即 rommon 1>,在这种情形下,对路由器的IOS进行升级,情况要稍微复杂一点。在rommon 1>状态下,可键?请求帮助。(1为命令行序号,每执行1条命令自动加1)

QUOTE:
rommon 1 > ?

alias               set and display aliases command

boot                boot up an external process

break               set/show/clear the breakpoint

confreg             configuration register utility

cont                continue executing a downloaded image

context             display the context of a loaded image

cookie              display contents of cookie PROM in hex

dev                 list the device table

dir                 list files in file system

dis                 display instruction stream

dnld                serial download a program module

frame               print out a selected stack frame

help                monitor builtin command help

history             monitor command history

meminfo             main memory information

repeat              repeat a monitor command

reset               system reset

set                 display the monitor variables

stack               produce a stack trace

sync                write monitor environment to NVRAM

sysret              print out info from last system return

tftpdnld            tftp image download

unalias             unset an alias

unset               unset a monitor variable

xmodem              x/ymodem image download

rommon 2 >
在rommon 1>状态下有两种升级IOS方法。


1、用Cisco原配的线缆连接路由器的console口与PC机的COM1,使用PC机的超级终端软件访问路由器,这时不需要对PC和路由器配置任何地址。

2、在这个模式下,输入Xmodem命令,即:
     rommon 2 > xmodem -c c2600-i-mz.122-11.bin

   (-c是带校验,c2600-i-mz.122-11.bin为存放在PC机上的IOS映像文件)

   WARNING: All existing data in bootflash will be lost!

   Invoke this application only for disaster recovery.

   Do you wish to continue? y/n  [n]:  y
     Erasing flash at 0x607c0000

   program flash location 0x605b0000

   Download Complete!
     program load complete, entry point: 0x80008000, size: 0x5b85e0

   Self decompressing the image : #################################################

   ################################################# [OK]

   Smart Init is disabled. IOMEM set to: 10

   Using iomem percentage: 10

   Restricted Rights Legend

   Use, duplication, or disclosure by the Government is

   subject to restrictions as set forth in subparagraph

   (c) of the Commercial Computer Software - Restricted

   Rights clause at FAR sec. 52.227-19 and subparagraph

   (c) (1) (ii) of the Rights in Technical Data and Computer

   Software clause at DFARS sec. 252.227-7013.

   cisco Systems, Inc.

   170 West Tasman Drive

   San Jose, California 95134-1706

   Cisco Internetwork Operating System Software

   IOS (tm) C2600 Software (C2600-I-M), Version 12.2(11)T9,  RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)

   TAC Support: [url]http://www.cisco.com/tac[/url]

   Copyright (c) 1986-2003 by cisco Systems, Inc.

   Compiled Mon 23-Jun-03 15:42 by cmong

   Image text-base: 0x8000809C, data-base: 0x80A68B48

   cisco 2610 (MPC860) processor (revision 0x203) with 22528K/2048K bytes of memory

   Processor board ID JAD03483395 (1128032249)

   M860 processor: part number 0, mask 49

   Bridging software.

   X.25 software, Version 3.0.0.

   1 Ethernet/IEEE 802.3 interface(s)

   2 Serial(sync/async) network interface(s)

   32K bytes of non-volatile configuration memory.

   8192K bytes of processor board System flash (Read/Write)

   Press RETURN to get started!

   *Mar  1 00:00:05.652: %PA-2-UNDEFPA: Undefined Port Adaptor type 100 in bay 1

   *Mar  1 00:00:07.996: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface Ethernet0/0, changed state to up

   *Mar  1 00:00:07.996: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface Serial0/0, changed state to down

   *Mar  1 00:00:07.996: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface Serial0/1, changed state to down

   *Mar  1 00:00:09.142: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Ethernet0/0, changed state to up

   *Mar  1 00:00:09.142: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Serial0/0, changed state to down

   *Mar  1 00:00:09.142: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Serial0/1, changed state to down

   *Mar  1 00:00:09.458: %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from memory by console

   *Mar  1 00:00:11.245: %LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface Serial0/1, changed state to administratively down

   *Mar  1 00:00:12.275: %SYS-5-RESTART: System restarted --Cisco Internetwork Operating System Software

   IOS (tm) C2600 Software (C2600-I-M), Version 12.2(11)T9,  RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)

   TAC Support: [url]http://www.cisco.com/tac[/url]

   Copyright (c) 1986-2003 by cisco Systems, Inc.

   Compiled Mon 23-Jun-03 15:42 by cmong

   *Mar  1 00:00:12.279: %SNMP-5-COLDSTART: SNMP agent on host NE16 is undergoing a cold start

Router>
     rommon 1 > confreg 回车

   Configuration Summary

   enabled are:

   load rom after netboot fails

   console baud: 9600

   boot: image specified by the boot system commands

   or default to: cisco2-C2600

   do you wish to change the configuration? y/n [n]: y (选择 yes)

   enable "diagnostic mode"? y/n [n]: n (选择 no)

   enable "use net in IP bcast address"? y/n [n]: n (选择 no)

   disable "load rom after netboot fails"? y/n [n]: n (选择 no)

   enable "use all zero broadcast"? y/n [n]: n (选择 no)

   enable "break/abort has effect"? y/n [n]: n (选择 no)

   enable "ignore system config info"? y/n [n]: n (选择 no)

   change console baud rate? y/n [n]: y (选择 yes)

   enter rate: 0 = 9600, 1 = 4800, 2 = 1200, 3 = 2400

   4 = 19200, 5 = 38400, 6 = 57600, 7 = 115200 [0]: 7 (选择 7,用最大的11520

   速率的xmodem传输)

   change the boot characteristics? y/n [n]: n (选择 no)

   Configuration Summary

   enabled are:

   load rom after netboot fails

   console baud: 115200

   boot: image specified by the boot system commands

   or default to: cisco2-C2600

   do you wish to change the configuration? y/n [n]: n (选择 no)

   You must reset or power cycle for new config to take effect

   rommon 2 > reset 回车


QUOTE:
     rommon 1> 提示符
     rommon 1> xmodem -r

   Do not start the sending program yet...

   Invoke this application only for disaster recovery.

   Do you wish to continue? y/n [n]: y (选择 yes)

   Ready to receive file ...


方法如下:

QUOTE:
     Router>en 进入新IOS的特权模式

   Router#reload 重启系统

   Proceed with reload? [confirm] 回车

   00:01:04: %SYS-5-RELOAD: Reload requested

   System Bootstrap, Version 11.3(2)XA4, RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)

   Copyright (c) 1999 by cisco Systems, Inc.

   TAC:Home:SW:IOS:Specials for info

   PC = 0xfff0a530, Vector = 0x500, SP = 0x680127b0

   C2600 platform with 24576 Kbytes of main memory

   PC = 0xfff0a530, Vector = 0x500, SP = 0x80004684            

   monitor: command "boot" aborted due to user interrupt      

   30秒内按ctrl+break键

   rommon 1 > confreg ( 输入“confreg”命令)

   Configuration Summary

   enabled are:

   load rom after netboot fails

   console baud: 115200

   boot: image specified by the boot system commands

   or default to: cisco2-C2600

   do you wish to change the configuration? y/n [n]: y (选择 yes)

   enable "diagnostic mode"? y/n [n]: n (选择 no)

   enable "use nn IP bcast address"? y/n [n]: n (选择 no)

   disable "load rom after netboot fails"? y/n [n]: n (选择 no)

   enable "use all zero broadcast"? y/n [n]: n (选择 no)

   enable "break/abort has effect"? y/n [n]: n (选择 no)

   enable "ignore system config info"? y/n [n]: n (选择 no)

   change console baud rate? y/n [n]: y (选择 yes)

   enter rate: 0 = 9600, 1 = 4800, 2 = 1200, 3 = 2400

   4 = 19200, 5 = 38400, 6 = 57600, 7 = 115200 [7]: 0 (选择 0,改回用标准速率速率9600的xmodem传输)

   change the boot characteristics? y/n [n]: n (选择 no)

   Configuration Summary

   enabled are:

   load rom after netboot fails

   console baud: 9600

   boot: image specified by the boot system commands

   or default to: cisco2-C2600

   do you wish to change the configuration? y/n [n]: n You must reset or power cycle for new config to take effect

   rommon 2 >


然后敲入

QUOTE:
     rommon 2 >reset
(二)通过tftpdnld命令升级IOS,具体步骤如下:

1、用Cisco原配的线缆连接路由器的console口与PC机的COM1,使用PC机的超级终端软件访问路由器;用一根双绞线连接路由器的eth0/0口与PC机的网卡。

2、将路由器的eth0/0口IP地址设为10.32.10.32;PC机的IP地址设为10.32.10.1。将要升级的IOS映象文件拷贝到相关的目录中,并运行TFTP服务器软件,通过菜单设置Root目录为拷贝IOS映象文件所在目录。

3、通过set 命令查看配置参数

QUOTE:
     rommon 2 > set

   PS1=rommon ! >

   BOOT=

   BSI=0

   RET_2_RTS=

   ?=0
4、在 rommon 状态下输入:(注意大小写)

QUOTE:
     rommon 3 >IP_ADDRESS=10.32.10.1             (路由器的ip地址)

   rommon 4 >IP_SUBNET_MASK=255.255.255.0     (路由器的掩码)

   rommon 5 >DEFAULT_GATEWAY=10.32.10.32     (缺省网关,是pc机的ip地址)

   rommon 6 >TFTP_SERVER=10.32.10.32         (是pc机的ip地址)

   rommon 7 >TFTP_FILE=C2600-I-MZ.122-11.BIN    (上传ios文件的名称)

   rommon 8>sync                             (保存参数配置)

   rommon 9 >set                              (查看)

   rommon 10 > set

   PS1=rommon ! >

   BOOT=

   IP_ADDRESS=10.32.10.1

   IP_SUBNET_MASK=255.255.255.0

   DEFAULT_GATEWAY=10.32.10.32

   TFTP_SERVER=10.32.10.32

   TFTP_FILE=C2600-I-MZ.122-11.BIN

   BSI=0

   RET_2_RTS=

   ?=0

   rommon 11 >tftpdnld
执行tftpdnld命令进行ios升级,有时可能会报错或命令不执行,这时只要用sync命令保存配置后,重新启动路由器(最好关掉电源再开机)后,再执行tftpdnld命令就可以了。

QUOTE:
     rommon 11 >tftpdnld(传送文件)出现提示选择y

   IP_ADDRESS: 10.32.10.1

   IP_SUBNET_MASK: 255.255.255.0

   DEFAULT_GATEWAY: 10.32.10.32

   TFTP_SERVER: 10.32.10.32

   TFTP_FILE: C2600-I-MZ.122-11.BIN

   Invoke this command for disaster recovery only.

   WARNING: all existing data in all partitions on flash will be lost!

   Do you wish to continue? y/n:  [n]:  y

   Receiving C2600-I-MZ.122-11.BIN from 10.32.10.32!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

   !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

   …

   !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

   File reception completed.

   Copying file C2600-I-MZ.122-11.BIN to flash.

   Erasing flash at 0x607c0000

   program flash location 0x605b0000

   rommon 13 >

   在rommon 13 >提示符下键入reset,或重新启动路由器(power-cycle),进入正常引导状态,即:

   Router>
笔者在Cisco2500、2600、7200等系列路由器上均实际操作过,以上为在Cisco2610路由器上实际操作捕获或截屏,所配地址只是特例,大家可根据实际需要予以修改。最后建议:大家在作正常路由器系统升级时,为防止不正确操作等引起的升级失败,请先把路由器原有的系统备份下来。
  评论这张
 
阅读(244)| 评论(0)
推荐 转载

历史上的今天

评论

<#--最新日志,群博日志--> <#--推荐日志--> <#--引用记录--> <#--博主推荐--> <#--随机阅读--> <#--首页推荐--> <#--历史上的今天--> <#--被推荐日志--> <#--上一篇,下一篇--> <#-- 热度 --> <#-- 网易新闻广告 --> <#--右边模块结构--> <#--评论模块结构--> <#--引用模块结构--> <#--博主发起的投票-->
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

页脚

网易公司版权所有 ©1997-2017